Advertisement

256th ENMC international workshop: Myositis specific and associated autoantibodies (MSA-ab): Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 8-10 October 2021

  • Jan Damoiseaux
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Central Diagnostic Laboratory, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229HX Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Affiliations
    Central Diagnostic Laboratory, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands
    Search for articles by this author
  • Andrew L. Mammen
    Affiliations
    Muscle Disease Unit. Laboratory of Muscle Stem Cells and Gene Regulation, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, United States
    Search for articles by this author
  • Yves Piette
    Affiliations
    Department of Rheumatology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Internal Medicine, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
    Search for articles by this author
  • Olivier Benveniste
    Affiliations
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Sorbonne Université, INSERM, UMR974, Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital, Paris, France
    Search for articles by this author
  • Yves Allenbach
    Affiliations
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Sorbonne Université, INSERM, UMR974, Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital, Paris, France
    Search for articles by this author
  • on behalf of theENMC 256th Workshop Study Group
    Author Footnotes
    1 Participants:Yves Allenbach (France),  Olivier Benveniste (France),  Carolien Bonroy (Belgium),  Xavier Bossuyt (Belgium),  Olivier Boyer (France),  Livia Casciola-Rosen (United States of America),  Hector Chinoy (United Kingdom),  Jan Damoiseaux (The Netherlands),  Ingrid de Groot (The Netherlands),  Ingrid E. Lundberg (Sweden),  Andrew Mammen (United States of America),  Neil McHugh (United Kingdom),  Roland Mischke (Germany),  Yves Piette (Belgium),  Ger Pruijn (The Netherlands),  Johan Rönnelid (Sweden),  Albert Selva-O'Callaghan (Spain),  Werner Stenzel (Germany),  Sarah Tansley (United Kingdom),  Jiri Vencovsky (Czech Republic),  Guochun Wang (China)
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Participants:Yves Allenbach (France),  Olivier Benveniste (France),  Carolien Bonroy (Belgium),  Xavier Bossuyt (Belgium),  Olivier Boyer (France),  Livia Casciola-Rosen (United States of America),  Hector Chinoy (United Kingdom),  Jan Damoiseaux (The Netherlands),  Ingrid de Groot (The Netherlands),  Ingrid E. Lundberg (Sweden),  Andrew Mammen (United States of America),  Neil McHugh (United Kingdom),  Roland Mischke (Germany),  Yves Piette (Belgium),  Ger Pruijn (The Netherlands),  Johan Rönnelid (Sweden),  Albert Selva-O'Callaghan (Spain),  Werner Stenzel (Germany),  Sarah Tansley (United Kingdom),  Jiri Vencovsky (Czech Republic),  Guochun Wang (China)

      Highlights

      • Consensus regarding the clinical indications that ask for detection of MSA.
      • Consensus regarding the optimal testing strategy for patients suspected of IIM.
      • Consensus on the format for reporting results to the clinician in order to enable optimal interpretation.
      • Proposition of the research agenda to obtain reliable data on the test-characteristics of the immuno-assays for MSA.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Neuromuscular Disorders
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Benveniste O
        • Stenzel W
        • Allenbach Y.
        Advances in serological diagnostics of inflammatory myopathies.
        Curr Opin Neurol. 2016; 29: 662-673
        • Lundberg IE
        • Fujimoto M
        • Vencovsky J
        • Aggarwal R
        • Holmqvist M
        • Chritopher-Stine L
        • et al.
        Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.
        Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2021; 7: 86
        • McHugh NJ
        • Tansley SL.
        Autoantibodies in myositis.
        Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2018; 14: 290-302
        • Damoiseaux J
        • Vulsteke JB
        • Tseng CW
        • Platteel ACM
        • Piette Y
        • Shovman O
        • et al.
        Autoantibodies in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: Clinical associations and laboratory evaluation by mono- and multispecific immunoassays.
        Autoimmun Rev. 2019; 18: 293-305
        • Mammen AL
        • Allenbach Y
        • Stenzel W
        • Benveniste O
        on behalf of the ENMC 239th Workshop Study Group. 239th ENMC international workshop: classification of dermatomyositis, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 14-16 December 2018.
        Neuromuscul Disord. 2020; 30: 70-92
        • Damoiseaux J.
        The perspective on standardisation and harmonisation : the viewpoint of the EASI president.
        Autoimmun Highlights. 2020; 11: 4
        • Bonroy C
        • Piette Y
        • Allenbach Y
        • Bossuyt X
        • Damoiseaux J.
        Positioning of myositis-specific and associated autoantibody (MSA/MAA) testing in disease criteria and routine diagnostic work-up.
        J Transl Autoimmun. 2022; 5100148
        • Lundberg IE
        • Tjarnlund A
        • Bottai M
        • Werth VP
        • Pilkington C
        • Visser M
        • et al.
        International myositis classification criteria project consortium, S. The juvenile dermatomyositis cohort biomarker, and repository, 2017 European league against rheumatism/American college of rheumatology classification criteria for adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and their major subgroups.
        Ann Rheum Dis. 2017; 76: 1955-1964
        • Hoogendijk JE
        • Amato AA
        • Lecky BR
        • Choy EH
        • Lundberg IE
        • Rose MR
        • et al.
        119th ENMC international workshop: trial design in adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, with the exception of inclusion body myositis, 10-12 October 2003, Naarden, The Netherlands.
        Neuromuscul Disord. 2004; 14: 337-345
        • Allenbach Y
        • Mammen AL
        • Benveniste O
        • Stenzel W
        Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies working group. 224th ENMC international workshop: clinico-sero-pathological classification of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies Zandvoort, The Netherlands, 14-16 October 2016.
        Neuromuscul Disord. 2018; 28: 87-99
        • Benveniste O
        • Romero NB.
        Myositis or dystrophy? Traps and pitfalls.
        Presse Med. 2011; 40: e249-e255
        • Mariampillai K
        • Granger B
        • Amelin D
        • Guiguet M
        • Hachulla E
        • Maurier F
        • et al.
        Development of a new classification system for idiopathic inflammatory myopathies based on clinical manifestations and myositis-specific autoantibodies.
        JAMA Neurol. 2018; 75: 1528-1537
        • Pinal-Fernandez I
        • Casal-Dominguez M
        • Derfoul A
        • Pak K
        • Miller FW
        • Milisenda JC
        • et al.
        Machine learning algorithms reveal unique gene expression profiles in muscle biopsies from patients with different types of myositis.
        Ann Rheum Dis. 2020; 79: 1234-1242
        • Rajendran V
        • Kalita P
        • Shukla H
        • Kumar A
        • Tripathi T.
        Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: structure, function, and drug discovery.
        Int J Biol Macromol. 2018; 111: 400-414
        • Marguerie C
        • Bunn CC
        • Beynon HL
        • Bernstein RM
        • Hughes JM
        • So AK
        • et al.
        Polymyositis, pulmonary fibrosis and autoantibodies to aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes.
        Q J Med. 1990; 77: 1019-1038
        • Monti S
        • Montecucco C
        • Cavagna L.
        Clinical spectrum of anti-Jo-1-associated disease.
        Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2017; 29: 612-617
        • Klein M
        • Mann H
        • Pleštilová L
        • Zámečník J
        • Betteridge Z
        • McHugh N
        • et al.
        Arthritis in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy: clinical features and autoantibody associations.
        J Rheumatol. 2014; 41: 1133-1139
        • Jiang M
        • Dong X
        • Zheng Y.
        Clinical characteristics of interstitial lung diseases positive to different anti-synthetase antibodies.
        Medicine (Baltimore). 2021; 100: e25816
        • Marie I
        • Josse S
        • Hatron PY
        • Dominique S
        • Hachulla E
        • Janvresse A
        • et al.
        Interstitial lung disease in anti-Jo-1 patients with antisynthetase syndrome.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013; 65: 800-808
        • Labirua-Iturburu A
        • Selva-O'Callaghan A
        • Vincze M
        • Dankó K
        • Vencovsky J
        • Fisher B
        • et al.
        Anti-PL-7 (anti-threonyl-tRNA synthetase) antisynthetase syndrome: clinical manifestations in a series of patients from a European multicenter study (EUMYONET) and review of the literature.
        Medicine (Baltimore). 2012; 91: 206-211
        • Mescam-Mancini L
        • Allenbach Y
        • Hervier B
        • Devilliers H
        • Mariampillay K
        • Dubourg O
        • et al.
        Anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients show a characteristic necrotizing perifascicular myositis.
        Brain. 2015; 138: 2485-2492
        • Aggarwal R
        • Bandos A
        • Reed AM
        • Ascherman DP
        • Barohn RJ
        • Feldman BM
        • et al.
        Predictors of clinical improvement in rituximab-treated refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis.
        Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014; 66: 740-749
        • Trallero-Araguás E
        • Grau-Junyent JM
        • Labirua-Iturburu A
        • García-Hernández FJ
        • Monteagudo-Jiménez M
        • Fraile-Rodriquez G
        • et al.
        Clinical manifestations and long-term outcome of anti-Jo1 antisynthetase patients in a large cohort of Spanish patients from the GEAS-IIM group.
        Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2016; 46: 225-231
        • Allenbach Y
        • Uzunhan Y
        • Toquet S
        • Leroux G
        • Gallay L
        • Marquet A
        • et al.
        Different phenotypes in dermatomyositis associated with anti-MDA5 antibody: Study of 121 cases.
        Neurology. 2020; 95: e70-e78
        • Tanboon J
        • Inoue M
        • Hirakawa S
        • Tachimori H
        • Hayashi S
        • Noguchi S
        • et al.
        Pathologic features of anti-Mi-2 dermatomyositis.
        Neurology. 2021; 96: e448-e459
        • Casal-Dominguez M
        • Pinal-Fernandez I
        • Pak K
        • Marin-Sanchez A
        • Sanz-Martinez MT
        • Baucells A
        • et al.
        The indirect immunofluorescence assay autoantibody profiles of myositis patients without known myositis-specific autoantibodies.
        Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2021; 39: 519-524
        • Mammen AL
        • Pak K
        • Williams EK
        • Brisson D
        • Coresh J
        • Selvin E
        • et al.
        Rarity of anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase antibodies in statin users, including those with self-limited musculoskeletal side effects.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012; 64: 269-272
        • Miller T
        • Al-Lozi MT
        • Lopate G
        • Pestronk A.
        Myopathy with antibodies to the signal recognition particle: clinical and pathological features.
        J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002; 73: 420-428
        • Mohassel P
        • Landon-Cardinal O
        • Foley AR
        • Donkervoort S
        • Pak KS
        • Wahl C
        • et al.
        Anti-hmgcr myopathy may resemble limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.
        Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2019; 6: e523
        • Mammen AL
        • Gaudet D
        • Brisson D
        • Christopher-Stine L
        • Lloyd TE
        • Leffell MS
        • et al.
        Increased frequency of drb1*11:01 in anti-hmg-coa reductase-associated autoimmune myopathy.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012; 64: 1233-1237
        • Close RM
        • Close LM
        • Galdun P
        • Gerstberger S
        • Rydberg M
        • Christopher-Stine L.
        Potential implications of six american indian patients with myopathy, statin exposure and anti-hmgcr antibodies.
        Rheumatology (Oxford). 2021; 60: 692-698
        • Greenberg SA.
        Inclusion body myositis: clinical features and pathogenesis.
        Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2019; 15: 257-272
        • Lloyd TE
        • Christopher-Stine L
        • Pinal-Fernandez I
        • Tiniakou E
        • Petri M
        • Baer A
        • et al.
        Cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase 1A as a target of circulating autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases.
        Arthritis Care Res. 2016; 68: 66-71
        • Herbert MK
        • Stammen-Vogelzangs J
        • Verbeek MM
        • Rietveld A
        • Lundberg IE
        • Chinoy H
        • et al.
        Disease specificity of autoantibodies to cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase 1A in sporadic inclusion body myositis versus known autoimmune diseases.
        Ann Rheum Dis. 2016; 75: 696-701
        • Paul P
        • Liewluck T
        • Ernste FC
        • Mandrekar J
        • Milone M.
        Anti-cN1A antibodies do not correlate with specific clinical, electromyographic, or pathological findings in sporadic inclusion body myositis.
        Muscle Nerve. 2021; 63: 490-496
        • Marie I
        • Hatron PY
        • Dominique S
        • Cherin P
        • Mouthon L
        • Menard J-F
        • et al.
        Short-term and long-term outcome of anti-Jo1-positive patients with anti-Ro52 antibody.
        Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2012; 41: 890-899
        • Wesner N
        • Uruha A
        • Suzuki S
        • Mariampillai K
        • Granger B
        • Champtiaux N
        • et al.
        Anti-RNP antibodies delineate a subgroup of myositis: A systematic retrospective study on 46 patients.
        Autoimmun Rev. 2020; 19102465
        • Casal-Dominguez M
        • Pinal-Fernandez I
        • Corse AM
        • Paik J
        • Albayda J
        • Casciola-Rosen L
        • et al.
        Muscular and extramuscular features of myositis patients with anti-U1-RNP autoantibodies.
        Neurology. 2019; 92: e1416-e1426
        • De Lorenzo R
        • Pinal-Fernandez I
        • Huang W
        • Albayda J
        • Tiniakou E
        • Johnson C
        • et al.
        Muscular and extramuscular clinical features of patients with anti-PM/Scl autoantibodies.
        Neurology. 2018; 90: e2068-e2076
        • Casal-Dominguez M
        • Pinal-Fernandeze I
        • Derfoul A
        • Graf R
        • Michelle H
        • Alabyda J
        • et al.
        The phenotype of myositis patients with anti-Ku autoantibodies.
        Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2021; 51: 728-734
        • Knauss S
        • Preusse C
        • Allenbach Y
        • Leonard-Louis S
        • Touat M
        • Fischer N
        • et al.
        PD1 pathway in immune-mediated myopathies: pathogenesis of dysfunctional T cells revisited.
        Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2019; 6: e558
        • Hedberg-Oldfors C
        • Meyer R
        • Nolte K
        • Abdul Rahim Y
        • Lindberg C
        • Karason K
        • et al.
        Loss of supervillin causes myopathy with myofibrillar disorganization and autophagic vacuoles.
        Brain. 2020; 143: 2406-2420
        • Miller FW
        • Twitty SA
        • Biswas T
        • Plotz PH.
        Origin and regulation of a disease-specific autoantibody response. Antigenic epitopes, spectrotype stability, and isotype restriction of anti-Jo-1 autoantibodies.
        J Clin Invest. 1990; 85: 468-475
        • Pinal-Fernandez I
        • Pak K
        • Gil-Vila A
        • Baucells A
        • Plotz B
        • Casal-Dominguez M
        • et al.
        Anti-cortactin autoantibodies are associated with key clinical features in adult myositis but are rarely present in juvenile myositis.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2022; 74: 358-364
        • Best M
        • Molinari N
        • Chasset F
        • Vincent T
        • Cordel N
        • Bessis D.
        Use of anti-transcriptional intermediary factor-1 gamma autoantibody in identifying adult dermatomyositis patients with cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Acta Derm Venereol. 2019; 99: 256-262
        • Aussy A
        • Fréret M
        • Gallay L
        • Bessis D
        • Vincent T
        • Jullien D
        • et al.
        The IgG2 isotype of anti-transcription intermediary factor 1γ autoantibodies is a biomarker of cancer and mortality in adult dermatomyositis.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2019; 71: 1360-1370
        • Pinal-Fernandez I
        • Ferrer-Fabregas B
        • Trallero-Araguas E
        • Balada E
        • Martínez MA
        • Milisenda JC
        • et al.
        Tumour TIF1 mutations and loss of heterozygosity related to cancer-associated myositis.
        Rheumatology (Oxford). 2018; 57: 388-396
        • Cordel N
        • Derambure C
        • Coutant S
        • Mariette X
        • Jullien D
        • Debarbieux S
        • et al.
        TRIM33 gene somatic mutations identified by next generation sequencing in neoplasms of patients with anti-TIF1γ positive cancer-associated dermatomyositis.
        Rheumatology (Oxford). 2021; 60: 5863-5867
        • Shi J
        • Li S
        • Yang H
        • Zhang Y
        • Peng Q
        • Lu X
        • Wang G.
        Clinical profiles and prognosis of patients with distinct antisynthetase autoantibodies.
        J Rheumatol. 2017; 44: 1051-1057
        • Chen F
        • Wang D
        • Shu X
        • Nakashima R
        • Wang G.
        Anti-MDA5 antibody is associated with A/SIP and decreased T cells in peripheral blood and predicts poor prognosis of ILD in Chinese patients with dermatomyositis.
        Rheumatol Int. 2012; 32: 3909-3915
        • Chen F
        • Li S
        • Wang T
        • Wang G.
        Clinical heterogeneity of interstitial lung disease in Chinese patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis and with or without specific autoantibodies.
        Am J Med Sci. 2018; 355: 48-53
        • Li S
        • Ge Y
        • Yang H
        • Wang T
        • Zheng X
        • Peng Q
        • et al.
        The spectrum and clinical significance of myositis-specific autoantibodies in Chinese patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.
        Clin Rheumatol. 2019; 38: 2171-2179
        • Yang HX
        • Tian XL
        • Jiang W
        • Li WL
        • Liu QY
        • Peng QL
        • et al.
        Clinical and pathological characteristics of immune mediated necrotizing myopathy.
        Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2019; 51: 989-995
        • Tansley SL
        • Snowball J
        • Pauling JD
        • Lissina A
        • Kuwana M
        • Rider LG
        • et al.
        The promise, perceptions, and pitfalls of immunoassays for autoantibody testing in myositis.
        Arthritis Res Ther. 2020; 22: 117
        • Tansley SL
        • Li D
        • Betteridge ZE
        • McHugh NJ.
        The reliability of immunoassays to detect autoantibodies in patients with myositis is dependent on autoantibody specificity.
        Rheumatology (Oxford). 2020; 59: 2109-2114
        • Espinosa-Ortega F
        • Holmqvist M
        • Alexanderson H
        • Storfors H
        • Mimori T
        • Lundberg IE
        • et al.
        Comparison of autoantibody specificities tested by a line blot assay and immunoprecipitation-based algorithm in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.
        Ann Rheum Dis. 2019; 78: 858-860
        • Hamaguchi Y
        • Kuwana M
        • Takehara K.
        Performance evaluation of a commercial line blot assay system for detection of myositis- and systemic sclerosis-related autoantibodies.
        Clin Rheumatol. 2020; 39: 3489-3497
        • Cavazzana I
        • Fredi M
        • Ceribelli A
        • Mordenti C
        • Ferrari F
        • Carabellese N
        • et al.
        Testing for myositis specific autoantibodies: comparison between line blot and immunoprecipitation assays in 57 myositis sera.
        J Immunol Methods. 2016; 433: 1-5
        • Hamaguchi Y
        • Kuwana M
        • Takehara K.
        Comparison of anti-OJ antibody detection assays between an immunoprecipitation assay and line blot assay.
        Mod Rheumatol. 2017; 27: 551-552
        • Nakashima R
        • Imura Y
        • Hosono Y
        • Seto M
        • Murakami A
        • Watanabe K
        • et al.
        The multicenter study of a new assay for simultaneous detection of multiple anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in myositis and interstitial pneumonia.
        PLoS One. 2014; 9: e85062
        • Mahler M
        • Betteridge Z
        • Bentow C
        • Richards M
        • Seaman A
        • Chinoy H
        • et al.
        Comparison of three immunoassays for the detection of myositis specific antibodies.
        Front Immunol. 2019; 10: 848
        • Fiorentino DF
        • Gutierrez-Alamillo L
        • Hines D
        • Yang Q
        • Casciola-Rosen L.
        Distinct dermatomyositis populations are detected with different autoantibody assay platforms.
        Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2019; 37: 1048-1051
        • Albayda J
        • Mecoli C
        • Casciola-Rosen L
        • Danoff SK
        • Lin CT
        • Hines D
        • et al.
        A North American cohort of anti-SAE dermatomyositis: clinical phenotype, testing, and review of cases.
        ACR Open Rheum. 2021; 3: 287-294
        • Mecoli C
        • Albayda J
        • Tiniakou E
        • Paik JJ
        • Zahid U
        • Danoff SK
        • et al.
        Myositis autoantibodies: a comparison of results from the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation myositis panel to the Euroimmun research line blot.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2020; 72: 192-194
        • Fiorentino DF
        • Chung LS
        • Christopher-Stine L
        • Zaba L
        • Li S
        • Mammen AL
        • et al.
        Most patients with cancer-associated dermatomyositis have antibodies to nuclear matrix protein NXP-2 or transcription intermediary factor 1γ.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2013; 65: 2954-2962
        • Bories E
        • Fortenfant F
        • Pugnet G
        • Renaudineau Y
        • Bost C.
        Myositis-specific autoantibodies in clinical practice : improving the performance of the immunodot.
        Sem Arthritis Rheum. 2022; 55151998
        • Pluk H
        • Van Hoeve BJA
        • Van Dooren SHJ
        • Stammen-Vogelzangs J
        • Van der Heijden A
        • Schelhaas HJ
        • et al.
        Inclusion body myositis-associated anti-Mup44 autoantibodies target the cytosolic 5’-nucleotidase IA.
        Ann Neurol. 2013; 73: 397-407
        • Kramp SL
        • Cho E
        • Shen G
        • Karayev D
        • Metzger AL
        • Morris RI
        • et al.
        Development and evaluation of a standardized ELISA for the determination of autoantibodies against cN-1A (Mup44, NT5C1A) in sporadic inclusion body myositis.
        Autoimmun Highlights. 2016; 7: 16
        • Rietveld A
        • Van den Hoogen L
        • Bizzaro N
        • Blokland S
        • Dähnrich C
        • Gottenberg JE
        • et al.
        Autoantibodies to cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase 1A in primary Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus.
        Front Immunol. 2018; 9: 1200
        • Platteel ACM
        • Wevers BA
        • Lim J
        • Bakker JA
        • Bontkes HJ
        • Curvers J
        • et al.
        Frequencies and clinical associations of myositis-related antibodies in The Netherlands: a one-year survey of all Dutch patients.
        J Transl Autoimmun. 2019; 2100013
        • Fierz W
        • Bossuyt X.
        Likelihood Ratio Approach and Clinical Interpretation of Laboratory Tests.
        Front Immunol. 2021; 12655262
        • Piette Y
        • De Sloovere M
        • Vandendriessche S
        • Dehoorne J
        • De Bleecker JL
        • Van Praet L
        • et al.
        Pitfalls in the detection of myositis specific antibodies by lineblot in clinically suspected idiopathic inflammatory myopathy.
        Clin Exp Rheum. 2020; 38: 212-219
        • Bossuyt X.
        Clinical performance characteristics of a laboratory test. A practical approach in the autoimmune laboratory.
        Autoimmun Rev. 2009; 8: 543-548
        • Brink M
        • Hansson M
        • Mathsson L
        • Jakobsson P-J
        • Holmdahl R
        • Hallmans G
        • et al.
        Multiplex analyses of antibodies against citrullinated peptides in individuals prior to development of rheumatoid arthritis.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2013; 65: 899-910
        • Neovius M
        • Simard JF
        • Klareskog L
        • Askling J
        • Study Group ARTIS
        Sick leave and disability pension before and after initiation of antirheumatic therapies in clinical practice.
        Ann Rheum Dis. 2011; 70: 1407-1414
        • Klareskog L
        • Catrina AI
        • Paget S.
        Rheumatoid arthritis. The role of an autoantigen, histidyl-tRNA synthetase, in the induction and maintenance of autoimmunity.
        Lancet. 2009; 373: 659-672
        • Miller FW
        • Waite KA
        • Biswas T
        • Plotz PH.
        The role of an autoantigen, histidyl-tRNA synthetase, in the induction and maintenance of autoimmunity.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1990; 87: 9933-9937
        • Notarnicola A
        • Preger C
        • Lundström SL
        • Renard N
        • Wigren E
        • Van Gompel E
        • et al.
        Longitudinal assessment of reactivity and affinity profile of anti-Jo1 autoantibodies to distinct HisRS domains and a splice variant in a cohort of patients with myositis and anti-synthetase syndrome.
        Arthritis Res Ther. 2022; 24: 62
        • Leclair V
        • Moshtaghi-Svensson J
        • Regardt M
        • Hudson M
        • Lundberg IE
        • Holmqvist M.
        Distribution and trajectory of direct and indirect costs of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.
        Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2021; 51: 983-988
        • Palterer B
        • Vitiello G
        • Carraresi A
        • Giudizi MG
        • Cammelli D
        • Parronchi P.
        Bench to bedside review of myositis autoantibodies.
        Clin Mol Allergy. 2018; 16: 5
        • Damoiseaux J
        • Andrade LEC
        • Carballo OG
        • Conrad K
        • Francescantonio PLC
        • Fritzler MJ
        • et al.
        Clinical relevance of HEp-2 indirect immunofluorescent patterns: the International Consensus on ANA patterns (ICAP) perspective.
        Ann Rheum Dis. 2019; 78: 879-889
        • Bossuyt X
        • De Langhe E
        • Borghi MO
        • Meroni PL.
        Understanding and interpreting antinuclear antibody tests in systemic rheumatic diseases.
        Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2020; 16: 715-726
        • Infantino M
        • Tampoia M
        • Fabris M
        • Alessio MG
        • Previtali G
        • Pesce G
        • et al.
        Combining immunofluorescence with immunoblot assay improves the specificity of autoantibody testing for myositis.
        Rheumatology (Oxford). 2019; 58: 1239-1244
        • Beaton TJ
        • Gillis D
        • Prain K
        • Morwood K
        • Anderson J
        • Goddard J
        • et al.
        Performance of myositis-specific antibodies detected on myositis line immunoassay to diagnose and sub-classify patients with suspected idiopathic inflammatory myopathy, a retrospective records-based review.
        Int J Rheum Dis. 2021; 24: 1167-1175
        • Vulsteke JB
        • De Langhe E
        • Claeys KG
        • Dillaerts D
        • Poesen K
        • Lenaerts J
        • et al.
        Detection of myositis-specific antibodies.
        Ann Rheum Dis. 2019; 78: e7
        • Mahler M
        • Vulsteke JB
        • Bossuyt X
        • De Langhe E
        • Satoh M.
        Standardisation of myositis-specific antibodies: where are we today?.
        Ann Rheum Dis. 2021; 80: e132
        • Fierz W
        • Bossuyt X.
        Likelihood ratios as value proposition for diagnostic laboratory tests.
        J Appl Lab Med. 2020; 5: 1061-1069
        • Bossuyt X
        • Damoiseaux J
        • Rasmussen N
        • van Paassen P
        • Hellmich B
        • Baslund B
        • et al.
        Harmonization of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) testing by reporting test result-specific likelihood ratios: position paper.
        Clin Chem Lab Med. 2020; 59: e35-e39
        • Bossuyt X
        • Cohen Tervaert JW
        • Arimura Y
        • Blockmans D
        • Flores-Suárez LF
        • Guillevin L
        • et al.
        Position paper: revised 2017 international consensus on testing of ANCAs in granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis.
        Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2017; 13: 683-692
        • Fischer A
        • Antoniou KM
        • Brown KK
        • Cadranel J
        • Corte TJ
        • du Bopis RM
        • et al.
        An official European respiratory society/American thoracic society research statement: interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features.
        Eur Respir J. 2015; 46 (ERJ 2015): 976-987
        • Mulder L
        • Van der Molen R
        • Koelman C
        • Van Leeuwen E
        • Roos A
        • Damoiseaux J.
        Validation conform ISO-15189 of assays in the field of autoimmunity: joint efforts in The Netherlands.
        Autoimmun Rev. 2018; 17: 513-517